means, means whereby, means-whereby

It is a law of Nature that the power of an organism to resist disease depends entirely upon its standard of health; and that standard again, must necessarily depend upon the development and preservation of the organ by means of the constant and regular exercise of its functional powers, in accordance with the teachings of Nature.

"The Prevention and Cure of Consumption" (1903) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), page 21

By means of a proper breathing method the mobility of the chest can be considerably increased in a few weeks, and the means employed in securing this mobility will cleanse, purify, and strengthen the lungs; . . .

"The Prevention and Cure of Consumption" (1903) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), page 24

There is brought about an effective interactive establishment of the normal functions of the vital internal organs by means of correct and adequate respiratory movements combined with delicately adjusted muscular exercises of the limbs and trunk.

"Mr F. Matthias Alexander's New Method of Respiratory and Vocal Re-Education" (1906) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), page 34

At the outset of respiratory re-education one has to contend with a mechanism which has not been consciously controlled, and this can only be met by using indirect means through the agency of ordinary volition.

"Introduction to a New Method of Respiratory Vocal Re-Education" (1906) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), page 46

8. That in order to secure the results desired, it is essential to teach the pupil to rehearse the dictated orders, not to do exercises, i.e. to devote his attention to apprehending the instructions of his teacher – those means whereby he is to gain what he requires, and not, as he will be apt to do, to concentrate his thoughts upon the end sought.

"Re-Education of the Kinæsthetic Systems" (1908) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), pages 83-84

In the event of this, I am prepared to offer my services as a gift to the nation, where the children are concerned, in proving the existence of the evils referred to above, and to give particulars of the means by which they may be eradicated and prevented in future.

Letter: Breathing and Cancer" (1909) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), page 88

These directions involve no interference with what the child has to express; they represent merely a cultivation and development of the means whereby he may find adequate and satisfying release for his potentialities.

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), page 83

It constitutes the "means whereby" of free and full expression, of adaptability to the ever-changing environment of civilized life, and to all that these two essentials connote.

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), page 86

The evils of this false policy came home to them in a practical way, and nowadays the object of the social worker is to give the poor the "means whereby" of general advancement and of getting money, clothes and food by their own efforts.

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), page 94

When each stage of the series essential to the "means whereby" is correctly apprehended by the conscious mind of the subject, the old habits can be broken up, and every muscular action can be consciously directed until the new and correct guiding sensations have established the new proper habits, which in their turn become subconscious, but on a more highly evolved plane.

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), page 118

The action is performed below the level of consciousness in its various stages, and only rises to the level of consciousness when the end is being attained by the correct "means whereby."

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), pages 126-127

 2. Then give the new and correct orders to your general co-ordinations and command the "means whereby" of the act of correct and controlled speaking.
3. Make this a principle of life.

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), page 136

5. When the attempt to drive is finally made, the idea to be held in mind is that of repeating the experiences as a whole (in other words, the "means whereby"), not the idea of making a drive.

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), page 140

And this discovery of the "means whereby," differing in different subjects and not to be stated in a general formula, can only be the result of trained observation and careful, patient investigation and experience.

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), page 142

Symptoms are considered causes, and furthermore the chief aim of the subject in practical procedure is the attainment of the "end" desired, not the due and proper considered analysis of the "means whereby" which will secure that "end."

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), page 161

He succeeded in this direction, but unfortunately subconscious guidance and control take no head of the "means whereby" to be employed. His idea was merely to make an effort to gain the "end" he desired, and he was never really conscious of the actual means he ultimately employed.

Man's Supreme Inheritance (Mouritz, 1996), pages 163-164

The change from a subconscious to a conscious plane of control would have involved a knowledge on man's part of the means whereby he would be able to command a conscious, reasoning direction and control of his psycho-physical mechanisms in all activity.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 29

Unfortunately, the process of reasoning out the "means-whereby" in connection with the gaining of his "ends"* was not and evidently could not have been adequately established as a habit in the human creature at this psychological moment in his development, else a consideration of the "means-whereby" of his development under savage conditions would have led him to a due consideration of these "means whereby" in their relation to satisfactory development under civilized conditions, and he would then have realized that the demands made upon him in the civilized state must necessarily be different in many ways from those made upon him in a savage state.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 29

The "means-whereby" principle, on the other hand, involves a reasoning consideration of the causes of the conditions present, and indirect instead of a direct procedure on the part of the person endeavouring to gain the desired "end." This indirect procedure is that psycho-physical activity, associated with constructive conscious guidance and control and with the consequent satisfactory use of the mechanisms, which establishes the conditions essential to the increasing development of potentialities. Under these conditions defects, peculiarities and misuse are not likely to be present within the organism.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 29 fn

 Now it is highly probable that he has never given consideration to the "means-whereby" required for such a special effort, for if he had, he would probably have awakened to the fact that he did not have within his control the means whereby a special effort of this kind could prove satisfactory.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 39

In considering the response to this stimulus, I would remind my readers that I do not separate "mental" and "physical" operations (manifestations) in my conception of the manner ("means-whereby") of the functioning of the human organism.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 41

Although he has reasoned out the means whereby he can control and turn to his own uses the different forces he has discovered in the outside world, he has not applied this reasoning principle where his own organism is concerned.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 62

  . . . the great majority of people who, at certain psychological moments, still act in the same way as their forbears of the so-called Dark Ages, and, when faced with similar problems, still work subconsciously for their immediate "ends" ("cure" idea), instead of first thinking out the reasonable means whereby their desired "ends" can be achieved (prevention idea).

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 63

He has probably never thought out how (the "means-whereby") he has performed such acts as "bending his knees," and . . .

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 99

  . . . although a teacher may demonstrate to a pupil over and over again that he will never be able to do what he is trying to do unless he changes his "means-whereby" (gives up, that is, "his way" of doing it), the pupil will still go on trying to overcome his difficulty "his way."

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 102

The problem, then, before us is to find a means whereby a reliable sensory appreciation can be developed and maintained throughout the organism, . . .

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 110

the teacher's knowledge of the correct means whereby the particular "end" can be secured;
(2) the pupil's correct apprehension and conscious repetition of the guiding orders or directions relating to these "means-whereby"; . . .

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 113

. . . he is almost certain to fall back into his old and harmful habit of blindly pursuing his "end," which means that he forgets to project his directive orders (the "means-whereby") . . .

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 114

 . . . in the work of re-education on a conscious plane we do not try to check the tendency directly, but rely instead on the use of certain "means-whereby" which will indirectly bring about the desired result.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 117

 . . . a volitionary act, by giving himself certain orders which are the means whereby a more satisfactory act of inspiration may gradually be cultivated before he attempts to go on to the next sentence.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 118

The varying details of the means whereby the use indicated of the arms and body is to be gained could not be set down in writing to meet the requirements of each pupil, for they vary with each slight stage of progress.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 124

This leads us directly to a consideration of the means we have adopted whereby a new and reliable sensory appreciation can be developed in the pupil, the means whereby he will be enabled to perform this evolution with the minimum of muscular tension.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 130

The marvellous efficiency of the respiratory machine, when properly employed, becomes apparent when we realize that we have only to continue to employ the same means whereby we secure the increase (expansion) to secure the decrease (contraction) of the intra-thoracic capacity . . .

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 141

We have seen, indeed, in Chapter III that he asks his pupil not to make any attempt to gain the "end" at all, but instead to learn gradually to remember the guiding orders or directions, which are the forerunners of the means whereby the end may one day be gained.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 145

The fact is, the principle of reasoning out on a general basis the means whereby we shall command our "ends" simply implies a common-sense procedure.

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 152

The projection of continued, conscious orders, on the other hand, calls for a broad, reasoning attitude, so that the subject has not only a clear conception of the orders essential ("means-whereby") for the correct performance of a particular movement . . .

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 174 

This exactly fits the "end-gaining" principle, and is antagonistic to the "means-whereby" principle which calls for the ability "to bring to bear on" a dozen or more objects if necessary, and which implies a number of things, all going on, and converging to a common consequence (continuous projection of orders).

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 176

To this end, the person concerned must learn to say "No" to every stimulus to psycho-physical activity until he has taken time to consider what are the reasonable means whereby the end he desires can be achieved . . .

Constructive Conscious Control of the Individual (STAT Books, 1997) page 184

If, then, as I suspected, this untrustworthiness of feeling was a product of civilized life, it would tend, as time went on, to become more and more a universal menace, in which case a knowledge of the means whereby trustworthiness could be restored to feeling would be invaluable.

The Use of the Self by F. Matthias Alexander (Methuen, 1932) pages 23-24

. . . I must cease to rely upon the feeling associated with my instinctive direction, and in its place employ my reasoning processes, in order

  1. to analyse the conditions of use present;
  2. to select (reason out) the means whereby a more satisfactory use could be brought about;
  3. to project consciously the directions required for putting these means into effect.

The Use of the Self by F. Matthias Alexander (Methuen, 1932) page 25

1. The phrase "means-whereby" will be used throughout this book to indicate the reasoned means to the gaining of an end. These means included the inhibition of the habitual use of the mechanisms of the organism, and the conscious projection of new directions necessary to the performance of the different acts involved in a new and more satisfactory use of these mechanisms.

The Use of the Self by F. Matthias Alexander (Methuen, 1932) page 27 fn

This experience taught me

  1. that before attempting to "do" even the first part of the new "means-whereby" which I had decided to employ in order to gain my end (i. e., vocal use and reciting), I must give the directions preparatory to the doing of this first part very many times; . . .

The Use of the Self by F. Matthias Alexander (Methuen, 1932) page 28

Lastly, I discovered that after I had become familiar with the combined process of giving the directions for the new ''means-whereby'' in their sequence and of employing the various corresponding mechanisms in order to bring about the new use, I must continue this process in my practice for a considerable time before actually attempting to employ the new "means-whereby" for the purpose of speaking.

The Use of the Self by F. Matthias Alexander (Methuen, 1932) page 28

 1 According to this procedure the subject starts by consciously projecting the directions for the means whereby he will gain a certain end, and, at the critical moment of going on to gain this end, makes a fresh decision as to whether he will employ these "means whereby" to gain the original end or some other.

The Use of the Self by F. Matthias Alexander (Methuen, 1932) page 41 fn

  . . . and so based his teaching practice on what I call the "means-whereby" principle, i. e., the principle of a reasoning consideration of the causes of the conditions present, and an indirect instead of a direct procedure on the part of the person endeavouring to gain the desired end.

The Use of the Self by F. Matthias Alexander (Methuen, 1932) page 56

In the case of such a pupil, working on the "means whereby" principle means working against a habit of life, and difficult as it is to work to a principle against any habit of life (as anyone who tries it will find out), the difficulty is enormously increased when it comes to working contrary to the habit of "end-gaining," . . .

The Use of the Self by F. Matthias Alexander (Methuen, 1932) page 64

The reader will remember how, in my own case, my failure to continue to inhibit, due to the habit of end-gaining, was the obstacle to my employing the new ''means-whereby'' in reciting, although I had reached the point where I could command these new "means-whereby" in ordinary speaking and knew by experience that they were "right" for my purpose.

The Use of the Self by F. Matthias Alexander (Methuen, 1932) page 114

But if we are going to do, not a mechanical exercise, but something real that matters, you have to think out beforehand the means whereby you have to do it, and give the directions or orders for these means whereby, in the form of a wish, as it were, and keep that wish going all through the activity.

"Bedford Physical Training College Lecture" (1934) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), page 168

The principle of thinking, of reasoning out first and then putting into practice the "means whereby" of doing any particular thing that we want to do, is the background of all our work.

 Bedford Physical Training College Lecture" (1934) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), page 172

In this case there is one stimulus to reaction – his desire or need to employ tools or instruments as the means whereby he can gain his end.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 5

They employ theories or plans which they have formulated as the instrument or means whereby they can instruct others or convert them to their ideas. Here, even with the help of the very best possible "means whereby," success in gaining their end depends upon the manner of their reaction not to one, but to several stimuli of varying intensity.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 5

For this reason we should know and be able to employ the means whereby we can establish a good manner of use as a constant.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 8

According to the second term, the "means-whereby" conception, this fact is recognized. Consequently, when an end is desired, the procedure is based on the conception that the manner of use of the self is no longer satisfactory, and that the associated mechanisms, being misdirected, are responsible for activity which does not meet the requirements for the gaining of desired ends; that this, therefore, necessitates the thinking out of new and improved "means-whereby" which will ensure that the manner of use of the self will not be associated with misdirection of the associated mechanisms, and so prove a stumbling-block in achieving the end.

This is an indirect procedure, . . . .

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), pages 11-12 section on End-Gaining and "Means-Whereby"

Here we have two procedures fundamental to our new technique, which, if repeated, will

  1. cause the habitual means whereby we have energized our old reaction to fall into disuse, and
  2. enable us to employ new means whereby we may energize the new and desired reaction.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 25

 . . . my daily experience proves to me that if specific effects are to be secured in accordance with scientific method and in such a way as to be lasting they must be gained not by direct but by indirect means* which involve a knowledge of the use of the primary control.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), pages 48-49

When a baby is born with a correct working of the primary control, the application of prevention will resolve itself into providing the means whereby this state of use and functioning could be maintained in living.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 61

. . . he appears to have no doubt that when he receives a request from his teacher to carry out some simple act, he will be able to adhere to his decision to inhibit his immediate response to the stimulus of this request, and to put into practice the new "means-whereby."

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 80

Only time and experience in the working out of the technique will convince him that, where the "means-whereby" are right for the purpose, desired ends will come.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 81

We should reserve all thought, energy, and concern for the means whereby we may command the manner of their coming.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 81

  . . . man tends to become more and more a confirmed end-gainer, one who too often insists on gaining his end by any means, even at the risk of disaster, rather than take time to consider means whereby the end can be gained so as to ensure the best possible result.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 90

The new "means-whereby" are unfamiliar, . . .

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 93

. . . and this situation will persist as the greatest stumbling-block in the way of making fundamental change until we employ means which provide opportunity for gaining the experiences necessary for passing from the familiar (wrong) to the unfamiliar (right) guidance and control of the psycho-physical organism, the only means which we are justified in concluding make provision for change in the fundamental sense.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 94

It is also necessary to remember, when considering methods for the changing of thought and action and selecting the means whereby this change can be put into practice, that no one can be said to have really accepted a new idea or approved of the "means whereby" of putting it into practice, until he has actually had the experience himself of employing the procedures necessary for doing this.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 94

His idea of non-doing leads him to advocate the employment of direct "means-whereby" of preventing certain misdirected actions ("doing") that can be observed in a person's behaviour (manner of use). In the application of our technique, on the other hand, the idea of non-doing leads to the employment of indirect "means-whereby" of preventing such misdirection.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 101

These "means-whereby" are all-important, because upon them depends that employment of the primary control of the use of ourselves by means of which we learn to know how we do the thing we are doing.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 119

This test of principle, when applied generally, will be found to be a dependable means whereby the value of new plans can be gauged, . . .

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 148

Here we have an indirect admission by St. Paul that the "means-whereby" at his disposal did not meet his needs in enabling him so to control his reactions that he could consistently put into practice his well-intentioned decisions for self-help,

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 151

. . . and the fact that both orthodox and unorthodox religious bodies still think it necessary to make a special effort to rouse interest in the revivalist method as a "means-whereby" is surely an admission that the results of this method in the past could not have been what they were claimed to be, and . . .

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 154

. . . it will be seen that the principle upon which the "means-whereby" of change is based will be the same, whether the object be to gain new experiences in the development of potentialities or to prevent the development of some functional trouble by learning how not to interfere with that working of the primary control which restores a manner of use associated with a satisfactory standard of functioning.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 158

. . . and when employing new "means-whereby" found myself in unfamiliar situations, and experiencing impeding and illuminating adventures in dark places.*

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 160

. . . he knows all about the means whereby he can keep the inanimate machine in order, and considers it his duty to make proper use of these, but he knows little or nothing about the means whereby he can keep in order that animate human machine – himself.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 165

Most of us know what we ought to do (ends), but are sadly lacking in knowledge of how to do ("means-whereby"), . . . .

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 170

. . . in my technique the procedures are carried out by indirect means which lead the pupil from the known (wrong) to the unknown (right) in experience, the first imperative in the employment of these procedures being to provide for the child, adolescent, or adult the "means-whereby" or standard by which, first, to judge and direct his own psycho-physical mechanisms in the activities of life, and then, in accordance with this standard, to judge the value of ideals and suggestions proposed to him in experience.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 173

. . . unless they are given that knowledge of the use of the self which includes the means whereby (means appropriate) they are enabled to inhibit the habitual (automatic) reaction to the stimuli of daily living, . . .

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 178

Up to now he has been so engrossed with the making of changes in the means whereby he could acquire what he considered necessary to his needs in inanimate things, that he has failed to give equal thought to the means whereby he can change and control his animate self.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 180

Namely, that if past experiences are not to be repeated, and man is to gain a better understanding of the nature of the aims and characteristics of the peoples of other nations as well as his own, he must have new "means-whereby" for living in the future.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 187

In the midst of the conditions prevailing today people are being driven to a revaluation of the "means-whereby" of all that has made up the way of life called democracy, for in the view of most people it is the "means-whereby" that is at fault, not the democratic way of life. This very viewpoint should in its turn lead to a revaluation of all that man has depended upon as the "means-whereby" of progress and development within and without himself.

The Universal Constant in Living (Mouritz, 2000), page 188

To revert to the fate of the pamphlet: it continued to sell week by week for a considerable time, and enquiries followed in consequence with regularity, so much so that I consider this was a most valuable contribution to the means whereby of gradually building up a practice.

"Autobiographical Sketch" (c. 1950) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), page 242

How came it that I should step on to the particular tramcar on which that particular bookmaker was riding, that he should think I might want to back his double, that my outlook on finance and risk should change so quickly, and that I should be possessed of information which enabled me to act at once in accordance with the changed decision, and all to a successful end, which in turn proved to be a valuable part of the means-whereby to success in my career in London.

"Autobiographical Sketch" (c. 1950) in Articles and Lectures (Mouritz, 1995), page 248 

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